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The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (Oxford Companions)

What did the traditional Greeks devour and drink? What position did migration play? Why was once emperor Nero well-liked by the standard humans yet much less so with the higher periods? Why (according to historic authors) was once Oedipus ('with swollen foot') so called?

For over 2,000 years the civilizations of historical Greece and Rome have captivated our collective mind's eye and supplied thought for therefore many features of our lives, from tradition, literature, drama, cinema, and tv to society, schooling, and politics. a few of the roots of ways existence is lived within the West at the present time should be traced to the traditional civilizations, not just in politics, legislations, expertise, philosophy, and technology, but additionally in social and kinfolk existence, language, and art.

This authoritative A to Z consultant good points over seven-hundred entries on all facets of lifestyles in old Greece and Rome. appealing illustrations, jargon-free entries, and an invaluable chronology and bibliography make this spouse the proper consultant for readers drawn to studying extra in regards to the Graeco-Roman global. in addition to offering sound details on all points of classical civilization corresponding to heritage, politics, ethics, morals, legislation, society, faith, mythology, technology and know-how, language, literature, artwork, and scholarship, the entries within the spouse replicate the altering interdisciplinary elements of classical stories, protecting large thematic matters, similar to race, nationalism, gender, ethics, and ecology, confirming the influence classical civilizations have had at the sleek world.

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Distilled spirits, reminiscent of brandy and whisky, had now not but been invented, and beer was once seemed upon as a swinish potation greater left to barbarians. JMO’B/BLR Alexander the nice (see dealing with web page) Alexandria (see º Map 2, Bb ») used to be based by way of *Alexander the good in 331 bc while he took *Egypt from the Persians. It used to be constructed largely by means of the 1st Ptolemies, who made it the capital in their nation and the most Mediterranean port of Egypt (see ptolemy i; ptolemy ii). It used to be based as a theoretically autono- 28 mous urban (*polis) of the normal Greek variety, modelled in numerous respects on Athens: it had an particular hereditary citizenship geared up by way of demes (local districts; see democracy, athenian), most likely with an meeting (ekklēsia), council (boulē), and each year elected magistrates, it had its personal territory, limited to citizenowners and exempt from direct royal taxation, its personal coinage, and its personal legislation. Its founding voters have been recruited from all around the Greek global; there have been additionally quite a few non-citizen citizens of Egyptian and different ethnic beginning, together with a wide Jewish group which received detailed privileges notwithstanding now not complete citizenship. Alexandria quickly turned one of many greatest and grandest towns of the Mediterranean international, famed for the enormous beauty of its major intersecting streets, its palace-quarter with the tomb of Alexander and the Museum and *library, its Serapeum (see egyptian deities), *gymnasium, and Pharus, the lighthouse on the front to its capacious man made harbours. As a royal capital Alexandria couldn't be a regular polis: its coinage and, most likely, its legislation have been used all through Egypt; through the dynastic struggles of the later  Ptolemies, within which its electorate clearly took a [continued on p. 32] Alexandria A late-antique tuition at Alexandria. The lecturer’s seat is seen on the centre of the U-shaped lecture-hall. Alexandria retained its eminence as an highbrow centre all through Roman occasions. A. ok. Bowman ALE XANDER the good Alexander the nice (Alexander III of Macedon), 356–323 bc, son of *Philip II and Olympias. 1. As crown prince he used to be taught through *Aristotle (from 342); he was once his father’s deputy in Macedon (340) and fought with contrast on the conflict of Chaeronea (338). Philip’s final marriage created a significant rift, yet a proper reconciliation have been effected by the point of his demise (autumn 336), and Alexander was once proclaimed king opposed to a heritage of dynastic intrigue, during which his opponents (notably Amyntas, son of Perdiccas, and the faction of Attalus) have been eradicated. A express of strength in southern Greece observed him said Philip’s successor as hēgemōn of the League of Corinth; and in 335, while the Thebans took benefit of his absence campaigning at the Danube and rebelled, he destroyed town and enslaved the survivors. The exemplary punishment enabled him to go away the Greek international below the supervision of Antipater with little worry of rebellion, whereas he grew to become to the battle of revenge opposed to Persia.

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